How can I forget her and be at rest? In her look is such longing as in the look of a new-born tender calf that longs to see its mother whose udders are ready to flow! These anthologies are significant source of cultural and historic information about ancient Tamil Nadu and South India. Akaval metre[ edit ] Of the eight anthologies five are on Agam, two on Puram, and one on both.
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Subramanya Bharathi — Tamil writer, poet, Indian freedom fighter. During the 18th and the 19th century Tamil Nadu witnessed some of the most profound changes in the political scene. The traditional Tamil ruling clans were superseded by European colonists and their sympathisers.
The Tamil society underwent a deep cultural shock with the imposition of western cultural influences. The Hindu religious establishments attempted to stem the tide of change and to safeguard the Tamil cultural values. Notable among these were the Saiva monasteries at Tiruvavaduthurai, Dharmapuram, Thiruppananthal and Kundrakudi. Meenakshi Sundaram Pillai — was a Tamil scholar who taught Tamil at one of these monasteries. He wrote more than eighty books consisting of over , poems.
Swaminatha Iyer to go search for Tamil books that have been lost for centuries. Gopalakrishna Bharathi lived during the early 19th century. He wrote numerous poems and lyrics set to tune in Carnatic music.
His most famous work is the Nandan Charitam on the life of Nandanar who having been born in a sociologically lower caste, faces and overcomes the social obstacles in achieving his dream of visiting the Chidambaram temple. This work is a revolutionary social commentary considering the period in which it was written, although Gopalakrishna Bharati expanded on the story in Periyapuranam.
Ramalinga Adigal Vallalar — wrote the devotional poem Tiruvarutpa is considered to be a work of great beauty and simplicity. Maraimalai Adigal — advocated for the purity of Tamil and wanted to clean it of words with Sanskrit influences. One of the great Tamil poets of this period was Subramanya Bharathi.
His works are stimulating in their progressive themes like freedom and feminism. Bharathy introduced a new poetic style into the somewhat rigid style of Tamil poetry writing, which had followed the rules set down in the Tolkaappiyam.
His puthukkavithai Lit. He also wrote Tamil prose in the form of commentaries, editorials, short stories and novels. Some of these were published in the Tamil daily Swadesamitran and in his Tamil weekly India. Inspired by Bharathi, many poets resorted to poetry as a means of reform.
Bharathidasan was one such poet. Swaminatha Iyer , was instrumental in the revival of interest in the Sangam age literature in Tamil Nadu. He travelled all over the Tamil country, collecting, deciphering and publishing ancient books such as Cilappatikaram , Kuruntokai , etc. He published over 90 books and wrote En caritham, an autobiography. Tamil novel Edit The novel as a genre of literature arrived in Tamil in the third quarter of the 19th century, more than a century after it became popular with English writers.
Its emergence was perhaps facilitated by the growing population of Tamils with a western education and exposure to popular English fiction. This was a romance with an assortment of fables, folk tales and even Greek and Roman stories, written with the entertainment of the reader as the principal motive.
It was followed by Kamalambal Charitram by B. Rajam Iyer in and Padmavathi Charitram by A. Madhaviah in These two portray the life of Brahmins in 19th century rural Tamil Nadu, capturing their customs and habits, beliefs and rituals.
Madhaviah tells the story in a more realistic way with a searching criticism of the upper caste society, particularly the sexual exploitation of girls by older men. Jayakanthan has enriched the high traditions of literary traditions of Tamil language and contributed towards the shaping of Indian literature. His literature presents a deep and sensitive understanding of complex human nature and is an authentic and vivid index of Indian reality.
One famous novel of his is Sila Nerangalil Sila Manithargal. Since the s the post modernist writers emerged as a major figures, including Jeyamohan , S. Ramakrishnan , Charu Nivedita. The critically acclaimed works include Vishnupuram and Venmurasu novel series by Jeymohan, Ubapandavam by S. There are other less appreciated works involving those translated from other languages, which are often unrecognized by Tamil pundits.
Writers like Amarantha, Latha Ramakrishnan are responsible for these works. Popular authors in the years before independence included Kurumbur Kuppusami and Vaduvur Duraisami Iyengar. These writers are often extremely prolific, with hundreds or even thousands of short novels to their credit, and one or more short novel published in a monthly periodical. Indra Soundar Rajan , another popular modern author, writes supernatural crime thrillers usually based around Hindu mythology. In the s and 60s, Chandilyan wrote a number of very popular historical romance novels set in medieval India or on medieval trade routes with Malaysia, Indonesia and Europe.
From the s, spanning six decades, Jayakanthan authored around 40 novels, short stories, apart from two autobiographies. Outside literature, he made two films. In addition, four of his other novels were adapted into films by others. His works revolve around the lives of underclass people like rickshaw-pullers, prostitutes and rag-pickers. Arunaa Nandhini is one of recent Tamil novelists who has entered the hearts of many Tamil readers, and her story covers family subject, romance, reality, with some humor added for the readers to enjoy their leisure.
Modern romance novels are represented by the current bestselling author in the Tamil language, Ramanichandran. Though sales of Tamil pulp fiction have declined since the hey-day of the mids, and many writers have turned to the more lucrative television serial market, there remains a thriving scene.
Periodicals Edit The increasing demand of the literate public caused a number of journals and periodicals to be published and these in turn provided a platform for authors to publish their work.
In , G. Subramaniya Iyer started the newspaper Swadesamitran. It became the first Tamil daily in This was the start of many journals to follow and many novelists began to serialise their stories in these journal. The humour magazine Ananda Vikatan started by S. Vasan in was to help create some of the greatest Tamil novelists.
Kalki Krishnamurthy — serialised his short stories and novels in Ananda Vikatan and eventually started his own weekly Kalki for which he wrote the enduringly popular novels Parthiban Kanavu , Sivagamiyin Sabadham and Ponniyin Selvan. Pudhumaipithan — was a great writer of short stories and provided the inspiration for a number of authors who followed him. Poets such as Mu Metha contributed to these periodicals. Another remarkable work was done in Tamil novel field by Mu.
The increasing demand of the literate public caused a number of journals and periodicals to be published and these in turn provided a platform for authors to publish their work. The first regular newspaper in Tamil was Swadesamitran in , started by G.
He created a whole new Tamil political vocabulary. He was conscious that those with a knowledge of English are a small number and those with a knowledge of Indian languages the vast majority.
He felt that unless our people were told about the objectives of British rule and its merits and defects in the Indian languages, our political knowledge would never develop. In , the first Tamil daily. It was to enjoy this status for 17 years. And the daily became even more popular when Subramania Bharati joined it in It had the most comprehensive budget of news among all the regional language papers of that time.
In , Desabhaktan, another Tamil daily began with T. Kalyansundara Menon as editor. He was succeeded by V. Iyer, a colleague of the Savarkar brothers.
These two editors were scholars with a natural, highly readable but polished style of writing. The freedom movement and the advent of Gandhi also impacted Tamil journalism.
Navasakthi, a Tamil periodical edited by Tamil scholar and freedom fighter V. Rajagopalachari began Vimochanam, a Tamil journal devoted to propagating prohibition at the Gandhi Ashram in Tiruchengode in Salem district. In , P. Its forceful and colloquial style gained it a wide readership but after the paper failed to take sides with the Civil Disobedience Movement, the Congress Party decided to bring out a new Tamil daily — India, edited by renowned poet Subramania Bharati.
India showed great promise but could not establish itself financially, and folded up soon after Bharati was exiled to Pondicherry. All these papers were published from Madras. It closed in as the price could not sustain even its postage. In September , S. Chockalingam as editor. It was priced at 6 pies, contained bright features and was fearlessly critical. It was highly successful and its circulation eclipsed the total circulation of all other Tamil dailies. Dinamani made a studied and conscious effort to make the contents of a newspaper intelligible even to the newly literate.
In , Viduthalai was begun, but it was more of a views-paper than a newspaper. The Non-Brahman Movement also gave an impetus to Tamil journalism. Newspapers like the Bharat Devi were strong supporters of this movement.
It is still running successfully after 80 years and the Vikatan group today also publishes Chutti Vikatan, Junior Vikatan, Motor Vikatan and other special interest magazines. Krishnamurthy serialised his short stories and novels in Ananda Vikatan and eventually started his own weekly Kalki. The name Kalki denotes the impending tenth Avatar of Lord Vishnu in the Hindu religion, who it is said, will bring to an end the Kali Yuga and reinstate Dharma or righteousness among the worldly beings.
He used the name because he wanted to bring about liberation of India. It was founded by S.
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