LEPTOSPIROSIS KERALA PDF

Correspondence: Mrs. Email: moc. In South Asia, the monsoon brings life to vegetation, but at the same time has potential to cause public health problems. Notably, the climate change due to global warming is affecting the extent of monsoon rainfall in the region causing flooding which increases the risks of major disease outbreaks. Flooding and standing water after heavy rainfall increases the risk of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria, plague, chikungunya, typhoid, cholera and Leptospirosis.

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Correspondence: Mrs. Email: moc. In South Asia, the monsoon brings life to vegetation, but at the same time has potential to cause public health problems. Notably, the climate change due to global warming is affecting the extent of monsoon rainfall in the region causing flooding which increases the risks of major disease outbreaks. Flooding and standing water after heavy rainfall increases the risk of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria, plague, chikungunya, typhoid, cholera and Leptospirosis.

Worldwide, Leptospirosis is one of the most common and emerging zoonoses, except on the North and South Poles. Rat fever or leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by the spiral-shaped bacteria spirochete of the genus Leptospira [ 1 ].

This infection is mainly seen in wild and even domesticated species of rodents. Rats are the primary reservoir of leptospirosis, although farm animals and livestock, such as horses, pigs, dogs or cattle, and even wild animals can also be a reservoir for the bacteria. However, human-to-human transmission seems to occur occasionally [ 1 ]. It is also an occupational hazard with potential risk of exposure among outdoors workers such as farmers, cleaners, veterinarians, agricultural workers.

Moreover, there exists an increased chance of a recreational hazard to those who swims and wades in contaminated waters [ 1 , 2 ]. The clinical presentation of mild leptospirosis usually manifested with various symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, or diarrhea or some cases remain asymptomatic.

Many of these clinical symptoms are non-specific and may leads to consideration of other possible diagnoses. Therefore, serologic testing should be done in acute and convalescent phase to confirm the diagnosis.

Of note, there are chances of relapse fulminant which is manifested with severe life-threatening illness resulted in meningitis, hepatic or renal failure and pulmonary hemorrhage [ 2 ]. The average incubation period from exposure to symptomatic presentation ranges from 7 to 12 days with a maximum range of days [ 1 ]. The mild disease is self-limiting which resolve spontaneously with time. Whilst the management of severe leptospirosis necessitates early administration of antimicrobial therapy using doxycycline or penicillin, to control disease progression.

However, like most public health problems, the primary prevention depends on the avoidance of leptospirosis exposure through awareness of transmission mechanisms. Precautions should be taken to prevent the bacterial invasion by using protective clothes and foot wears among occupational workers at high-risk of exposure to the contaminated water or engaging in recreational activities [ 3 ].

In South Asia, it is often spread after heavy rain or post flooding. A systematic review, estimated higher rate of morbidity and mortality due to leptospirosis in the South and Southeast Asian regions, as it is an under-reported public health concern [ 4 ].

Earlier studies from India have shown that the incidence and consequences of leptospirosis is increasing, however studies on prognosis of the disease are still fairly rare [ 5 , 6 ]. It was declared as a public health problem in India from onwards, and isolated cases have been reported prior to this date [ 7 ]. Other states of India have reported the incidence of sporadic leptospirosis cases. Rat fever has long been a major threat to the State of Kerala with more than 1, cases is being reported annually.

Nationally, it causes the highest number of deaths among all communicable diseases in the state of Kerala. At least deaths were reported yearly in Kerala before In , there were 1, cases of rat fever of which 5. The number of leptospirosis cases in , and were , and with mortality rate of In and , the number of confirmed cases was and with death rate of 70 7. It has been also reported that in and , confirmed cases was and with 34 4.

Notably, the incidence and mortality of leptospirosis in Kerala for the following years showed a declining trend as compared to the previous years.

In , 43 people died of rat fever and in the subsequent years the death toll was found to be 35 and 80 in and , respectively.

From the month of January till July before the flood , 28 deaths were reported due to leptospirosis in Kerala. Kerala suffered unusually heavy rainfall and faced a catastrophic flood in August and September , in which around people died.

The aftermath of the flood brings several epidemics. The Directorate of Health Services delivered an action plan for the prevention and control of communicable diseases and informed the public regarding the symptoms and appropriate treatment of such diseases with the help of volunteers. Despite that, there was a major threat of outbreak of leptospirosis in Kerala after this floods and the highest number of leptospirosis cases was reported from Kozhikode district of Kerala which was affected most by the flood.

It was reported that leptospirosis, and dengue fever has killed more than 70 people in shorter time span. As of September 11, , the Integrated Disease Surveillance Project IDSP data revealed that there were suspected leptospirosis cases with 95 suspected deaths, whereas the confirmed cases stood at with a confirmed death rate of 53 4. On the other hand, statistics from the Kerala State Health Department reported confirmed cases and 18 3. Due to global warming and deforestation, heavy rainfall and flooding is more likely to be seen in the South Asia region in general and Kerala in particular.

It is therefore important to promote the public health awareness for primary prevention with proper sanitation, hand washing, wearing protective clothing, drinking boiled water, and avoid contact with contaminated water or soil, which are the common sources of exposure.

Moreover, precautions should be taken to prevent the bacterial invasion by using protective clothes and foot wears among occupational workers at high-risk of exposure to the contaminated water. References 1. Washington State Department of Health. Sep 17;9 9 :e Mohan CM.

Nepal J Epidemiol. World Health Organization. Mumbai, February. Epidemiological Situation of Communicable Diseases in Kerala Integrated disease surveillance project. Sukumaran A, Pradeepkumar AS.

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Increase in leptospirosis cases in Kerala after floods, alert issued for 5 districts

Leptospirosis, Hepatitis A haunt Kerala after floods 2 min read. Updated: 02 Sep , PM IST Neetu Chandra Sharma Post floods, Kerala has seen a spurt in communicable diseases, including leptospirosis, Hepatitis A and chicken pox, raising fears of an epidemic Share Via Read Full Story Topics mint-india-wire kerala-floods Kerala Kerala floods Kerala epidemic Leptospirosis Hepatitis A chicken pox Kerala diseases Kerala relief camps Kerala healthcare situation Kerala floods New Delhi: Flood-ravaged Kerala has seen a spurt in communicable diseases, as the administration struggles to prevent and contain them with a debilitated healthcare system. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease transmitted mainly through water or soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. Similarly, the state saw 1, cases of chicken pox with one death in August, against zero cases in all of Also, while viral Hepatitis A infected 1, and killed four this August, there were only cases in all of From January to 1 September , Kerala saw cases of leptospirosis with 36 deaths, 21, chicken pox cases with 15 deaths, and cases of scrub typhus with two deaths.

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What is Leptospirosis?

Increase in leptospirosis cases in Kerala after floods, alert issued for 5 districts An alert was issued by the Directorate of Health Services for Thrissur, Palakkad, Kozhikode, Malappuram and Kannur. All of them had indirect contact with flood water. You may take this situation very seriously and alert the entire clinical team of your district. Any fever with myalgia to be taken as Leptospirosis and to be treated accordingly until further orders. The DMO added that there are 64 people who are suspected to be suffering from leptospirosis, whose reports are awaited. In alone, there were confirmed cases of leptospirosis reported in the state of Kerala, of which there were 80 deaths reported.

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Outbreak of Leptospirosis in Kerala

Health department officials said that in August, only 34 suspected leptospirosis cases and confirmed ones were reported in the state. However, in the first two days of September, as many as suspected cases and 73 confirmed cases were reported. PTI Photo After floods ravaged Kerala last month, the state is staring at a new problem — an outbreak of Leptospirosis or rat fever. The state government Sunday sounded an alert after the disease, which is transmitted from animals to humans, claimed 17 lives. The disease is detected in areas which have witnessed excessive rainfall or flooding.

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