Since the sensitivity of psyllid photoreceptors is currently not known, we used a Stavenga template for chromophore A1, the most commonly encountered chromophore in insects, to model spectral sensitivities Stavenga et al. The putative photosensitivities used to calculate photoreceptor stimulations are represented in Figure 3. Putative sensitivities of UV-blue-green photoreceptors modeled with the Stavenga template for photopigment A1 used in the calculation of photon catches in Equation 3. Statistical Analyses The influence of gender on color preference was tested using nominal logistic regression Quinn and Keough,
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Received Oct 29; Accepted Jan 8. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Wood products are highly exposed to infestation by powder post beetles.
Dinoderus minutus bamboo borer is a wood boring beetle that seriously damage dried bamboo and finished bamboo products. Management of D. By understanding influence of natural climatic conditions on their reproductive behaviour, could help us to develop a cost effective and environmental friendly strategy to cope up with this problem. From the results, eclosion to first instar larva was recorded at all relative humidities tested.
It was noted that pre-ovipositional period decreased from We conclude that female beetles may have a particular hygropreference in oviposition as total egg production increased with increasing relative humidity.
Keywords: Bostrychidae, Bamboo borer, Dinoderus minutus, Egg hatchability, Powderpost beetle, Reproductive capacity Introduction Plants are always under the influence of biotic as well as abiotic stressful conditions Anjum et al. Plant-insect interactions are quite common in nature and sometimes very useful for both species, however, when insects showed negative interactions, resulting to cause direct damages to the plants or their products, they are termed as pests.
Pests are known to attack the economically important plants and their products at both pre-harvest as well as post-harvest stages and responsible for huge economic losses Agboka et al. To cope up with this problem, normally pesticides are used. However, besides being very costly, the indiscriminate use of these pesticides has now created serious health as well as environmental problems Madhun and Freed ; Pimentel ; Devi Repeated application of pesticides leads to loss of biodiversity Bengtsson et al.
The latest trend is to understand the nature of reproductive biology of these pests and their dependence on several environmental conditions Garcia and Morrell Various climatic conditions are responsible for the normal reproduction, production of eggs as well as egg hatchability. Relative humidity can affect the physiology and thus the development, longevity and oviposition of many insects.
Different exposure of relative humidity on stored product pest, Tribolium castaneum, T. Low relative humidity can prevent embryo development and egg hatching due to loss of lubrication and cuticular softness in insect Guarneri et al. High relative humidity contributes to population increase in stored product pest, as shown in Callosobruchus maculatus under laboratory conditions Ouedraogoa et al.
Female Callosobruchus maculatus showed higher fecundity and longer adult lifespan at high humidity. High humidity support reproductive capacity in insects as percentage of water is correlated with the amount of fat including eggs in females , which consists of anhydrous molecules, and with the amount of cuticle, which has a lower water content than other tissues.
Environmental temperature and humidity affects the developmental phase and transpiration through insect body surface Chapman ; Guarneri et al. Insects must keep body water content within certain limits which is influenced by the degree of the insect cuticle permeability Willmer, ; Raghu et al. Insect survival is influenced by its ability to tolerate fluctuations in body water influence by humidity Romoser and Stoffolano, The present study was concentrated to understand the effect of relative humidity on egg hatchability and reproductive capacity of bamboo borer Dinoderus minutus.
This study would help us to develop cost effective and environmental friendly strategies to control insect pests without any health hazards. Materials and methods Insect Culture Adult D. Most bamboo culms infested by D. Newly emerged beetles were collected and introduced into a new culture jar with cassava block using standards techniques of culture described by Abood et al.
Control of Relative humidity Different salt solutions and distilled water were used to control the relative humidity to which eggs and adult beetles were exposed. As indicated by Winston and Bates , Roca and Lazzari and Dambach and Goehlen , acid or inorganic non-volatile salt solutions were adequate for this purpose, as their water vapour pressure remained constant for long periods. The relative humidity was obtained by filling solutions at the bottom of desiccators and monitored using a digital thermohygrometer.
Throughout the study, investigation on reproductive parameters and egg hatchability were carried out in Petri dishes kept in desiccators corresponding to each relative humidity and hermetically closed. Ten pairs of adult beetles were exposed at each relative humidity tested.
Each pair of adults were selected and separately introduced into Petri dishes lined with cassava pellet and filter paper. Observation on egg production was then started after 24 hours of setup. Cassava pellets were removed and broken up daily to assess number of eggs laid. The cassava pellet was replaced each time after inspection on egg production. Data collection on adult longevity and fecundity were collected until complete mortality. Newly laid eggs of D. A total of 50 eggs were placed equidistant into Petri dishes lined with black filter paper for each relative humidity tested.
Each Petri dish was kept in desiccators corresponding to each relative humidity and hermetically closed. Petri dishes were kept under these conditions and observation on egg eclosion and incubation period were observed daily under stereomicroscope and compared. During observation, eggs were removed as required with respect to age in days with a fine brush.
Each egg was mounted on a concave microscope slide with a cover slip. This method was carried out to minimize the effect of relative humidity during the non-test conditions. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis software SAS version 9. Table 1 Influence of relative humidity on egg eclosion Relative humidity.
Insect flight: Anatomy of wing 1/2
Received Oct 29; Accepted Jan 8. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Wood products are highly exposed to infestation by powder post beetles. Dinoderus minutus bamboo borer is a wood boring beetle that seriously damage dried bamboo and finished bamboo products.
Related but not alike: not all Hemiptera are attracted to yellow