ESTEREOQUIMICA DE ALCANOS Y CICLOALCANOS PDF

En este punto pondremos especial atencin en el aspecto espacial de las molculas dado que estas no son planas sino que tienen y ocupan un volumen en el espacio. Conformaciones de los alcanos: Las diferentes configuraciones de los tomos debidas a la rotacin alrededor de un enlace sencillo se denominan conformaciones, y una conformacin especfica recibe el nombre de confrmero ismero conformacional. Sin embargo, a diferencia de los ismeros constitucionales, los distintos confrmeros no suelen poder aislarse debido a que se interconvierten con rapidez. Los qumicos representan los ismeros conformacionales de dos maneras, como se muestra en la figura para el etano.

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Mom Some common alkyl groups and their names. Conformations of Cyclohexane Caption: Solution The longest carbon chain contains eight ciclooalcanos atoms, so this compound is named as an octane. For butane there will be two different staggered conformations: The methyl group is axial in one conformation, and equatorial in the other. Two chair conformations are possible for cis-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane. In the Newman projection it is easier to see the steric interaction between the methyl substituent and the hydrogens and carbons of the ring.

The conformation of cyclopentane is slightly folded, like the shape esteeeoquimica an envelope. For ethane, only 3. The chair conformation is most stable, followed by the twist boat. Straight chain actually is zigzag. Number the carbons, starting closest to the first branch. Longer chained alkanes have greater surface area and can have more surface contact and more induced dipoles than branched alkanes with smaller surface areas.

Butano tiene 2 conformaciones alternadas diferentes: To relieve ring strain, cyclopentane cidloalcanos the envelope conformation. The more stable conformation has both methyl groups in equatorial positions. Wade03 estructura y estereoquimica de alcanos The unfavorable conformation has both methyl groups in axial positions, with a 1,3-diaxial interaction between them. Because of their smaller surface areas, branched alkanes have lower boiling points than unbranched alkanes.

Chair interconversion would ccicloalcanos produce an axial and an equatorial methyl. In this case both chairs have the same energy, and they are present in equal amounts. When there are two carbon chains of the same length, the one that has the most substituents must be chosen to name the compound. If two substituents are equidistant, look for the next closest group. There is steric hindrance estereoauimica these hydrogens so the molecule twists a little producing the twist boat conformation which is 1.

Conformations of Cyclobutane Caption: El Cis-1,3-dimetilciclohexano puede tener ambos grupos axiales o ecuatoriales. Melting Points of Alkanes Caption: Most stable conformer puts t-butyl equatorial regardless of other substituents. Conformations of Cyclopropane Caption: Puckered conformer reduces torsional strain. Ambas conformaciones tienen un metil axial y otro ecuatorial.

Some groups are so bulky that they are extremely hindered in axial positions. Use di- tri- etc. All the carbon-carbon bonds are eclipsed, generating torsional strain that contributes to the total ring strain. The equatorial bonds are directed outward, toward the equator of the ring. Allcanos ramificados tienen p. Most Related.

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