This field guide supplements but does not replace existing permitting procedures and safe work practices. To keep it brief, not every potential hazard or prevention is listed. Apply appropriate local hazard assessment procedures, along with this guide, to comprehensively assess each job. Field Guide Applications Before beginning your high-risk activity, review significant potential hazards and associated preventions. Refer to the field guide in all phases of hazard assessment: during planning, permitting, implementingand closeout.
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A job safety analysis JSA is a procedure which helps integrate accepted safety and health principles and practices into a particular task or job operation. In a JSA, each basic step of the job is to identify potential hazards and to recommend the safest way to do the job. Other terms used to describe this procedure are job hazard analysis JHA and job hazard breakdown.
Some individuals prefer to expand the analysis into all aspects of the job, not just safety. This approach is known as total job analysis.
Methodology is based on the idea that safety is an integral part of every job and not a separate entity. In this document, only health and safety aspects will be considered.
The terms "job" and "task" are commonly used interchangeably to mean a specific work assignment, such as "operating a grinder," "using a pressurized water extinguisher," or "changing a flat tire. One of the methods used in this example is to observe a worker actually perform the job. The major advantages of this method include that it does not rely on individual memory and that observing or performing the process prompts the recognition of hazards.
For infrequently performed or new jobs, observation may not be practical. One approach is to have a group of experienced workers and supervisors complete the analysis through discussion. An advantage of this method is that more people are involved in a wider base of experience and promoting a more ready acceptance of the resulting work procedure.
Members of the health and safety committee must also participate in this process. Initial benefits from developing a JSA will become clear in the preparation stage. The analysis process may identify previously undetected hazards and increase the job knowledge of those participating. Safety and health awareness is raised, communication between workers and supervisors is improved, and acceptance of safe work procedures is promoted.
A JSA, or better still, a written work procedure based on it, can form the basis for regular contact between supervisors and workers. It can serve as a teaching aid for initial job training and as a briefing guide for infrequent jobs. It may be used as a standard for health and safety inspections or observations. In particular, a JSA will assist in completing comprehensive accident investigations. What are the four basic steps?
Four basic stages in conducting a JSA are: selecting the job to be analyzed breaking the job down into a sequence of steps identifying potential hazards determining preventive measures to overcome these hazards What is important to know when "selecting the job"?
Ideally, all jobs should be subjected to a JSA. In some cases there are practical constraints posed by the amount of time and effort required to do a JSA. Another consideration is that each JSA will require revision whenever equipment, raw materials, processes, or the environment change. For these reasons, it is usually necessary to identify which jobs are to be analyzed.
Even if analysis of all jobs is planned, this step ensures that the most critical jobs are examined first. Factors to be considered in setting a priority for analysis of jobs include: Accident frequency and severity: jobs where accidents occur frequently or where they occur infrequently but result in serious injuries. Potential for severe injuries or illnesses: the consequences of an accident, hazardous condition, or exposure to harmful products are potentially severe. Newly established jobs: due to lack of experience in these jobs, hazards may not be evident or anticipated.
Modified jobs: new hazards may be associated with changes in job procedures. Infrequently performed jobs: workers may be at greater risk when undertaking non-routine jobs, and a JSA provides a means of reviewing hazards. How do I break the job into "basic steps"? After a job has been chosen for analysis, the next stage is to break the job into steps. A job step is defined as a segment of the operation necessary to advance the work. See examples below. Care must be taken not to make the steps too general.
Missing specific steps and their associated hazards will not help. On the other hand, if they are too detailed, there will be too many steps. A rule of thumb is that most jobs can be described in less than ten steps. If more steps are required, you might want to divide the job into two segments, each with its separate JSA, or combine steps where appropriate.
As an example, the job of changing a flat tire will be used in this document. An important point to remember is to keep the steps in their correct sequence. Any step which is out of order may miss serious potential hazards or introduce hazards which do not actually exist.
Each step is recorded in sequence. Make notes about what is done rather than how it is done. Each item is started with an action verb. Appendix A below illustrates a format which can be used as a worksheet in preparing a JSA. Job steps are recorded in the left hand column, as shown here: Sequence of Events.
Job Safety Analysis