Vitaur Cai the column base, provision shall be made to transfer the load to the footing at safe unit stresses in accordance with Section a. Aggregate—Inert material which is mixed with portland cement and water to produce concrete. Available soon, it will aid the design of structural members by ultimate strength methods compatible with the Building Code. Web reinforcement shall be anchored at both ends in accordance with Section Flat slabs within the limitations of Sectionwhen designed by elastic analysis, may have resulting analytical moments reduced in such proportion that the nu- merical sum of the positive and average negative bending moments Generated for Mohamed Aly Abdel-razik Moustafa University of California, Berkeley on The reinforcement in the bottom of the slab shall be at right angles to the diagonal or may be of Generated for Acj Aly Abdel-razik Moustafa University of California, Berkeley on In T-shaped sections allowance shall be made for the effect of flange.
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Reiterman Peter D. Hoffman Paul F. Rice Robert E. Doyle Robert W. Johnson Milton R. Sees Gustav G. Johnston J. Maurice Spang, J. Leo P. Fibotte Harry B. Gagnon, Jr. Douglas D. Lee Bertrand K. Thornley Gerald E. Goettsche 1. Mana A. I atempsto define he responsibilities ofboth the Engineer and Detailer. It then exablshe conan standard of Practice for both the engineering and placing drawing.
Keywords: beams sepports; ending reinforcing steel : bridges structures: bidings:colimas supports : computer: concrete onstruction: conerete slabs: daling: drafting raving. The result is that more complex structures are being designed and built with structural members which have long spans, shallow depths, and contain a high percentage of rein- forcement.
Reference to these documents shall not be made in the Project Documents. Usually these solutions were used only after their acceptance by the Engineer. Unfortunately, many prob- Jems do not surface during the detailing phase but rather occur during construction. The Engineer and the Con- tractor, working together, then solve the problem. The engineering drawings and the project specifi- cations form a part of Contract Documents.
Engineering drawings should contain an adequate set of notes and all other essential information in a form that can be quickly and correctly interpreted. These drawings should convey definite instructions and show reinforcing bars and welded wire fabric.
Engineering and placing drawings may be combined. Instead, this information should be interpreted by the Engineer and shown in the form of specific design details or notes for the Detailer to follow. The En- gineer should require in the specifications that placing Grawings be submitted for approval. Section 1. Other media providing improved repro- ducibility or durability such as ink, tracing cloth, or polyester film may be utilized. All sheets in any one set of drawings should be the same size.
There are two well-recognized sets of standard sizes. Commercial standards: 18x 24 in, 24 x 36 in. Border lines are inside these dimensions. Drawings that may be enlarged or reduced in reproduction should show a graphic scale as well as a descriptive one to aid the user. If reduced-scale photographic prints are to be made for field use, lettering must be correspondingly larger, and meet microfilming standards in accordance with the National Microfilm Association publication "Modern Drafting Techniques for Quality Microreproductions.
Sleeve locations and any special reinforcement around sleeves or openings should be indicated by the Engineer. See Fig. Show sections for beam-column joints, where necessary. Tn continuous beams the number and spacing of top bars to be placed in T-beam flanges slabs for crack control must be shown, if so required by the design.
Splicing must always be clearly defined, showing arrangement of splices, whether butt or lapped, any staggers, and type of connection required for butt splices. Orientation of reinforcement in two-way symmetrical columns must be shown when reinforcement is not two-way symmetrical.
Drawings must show the dimensions of concrete protec- tion for all reinforcement. The list of bars must show the number of pieces, size, length, mark of bars, and bending details of all bent bars. Reinforcement for larger structures is sometimes detailed, fabricated, and delivered by units, for example, footings, abutments, piers, and girders.
The reinforce. If the structure is sufficiently large, a separate drawing and reinforcement list is usually made for each unit. Reinforcement for foundations, piers, abutments, wingwalls, and slabs are usually shown on the plan, section, or elevation. Cross sections must be provided for clarification where necessary. The reinforcement list must be a complete summary of materials required. For reference data on reinforcing bars and welded Wire fabric from industry sources, refer to the Supporting Reference Data section of this manual.
This section includes specific information on applicable ASTM speci- fications, coated reinforcing bars, common stock styles and design data for welded wire fabric, and reinforcing bar supports. These standard tolerances are shown in Fig. The effects of tolerances on cover, strength, constructability, and serviceability of the structure should be considered by the Engineer. See Table 1 and Fig. The Engineer must also specify the distance between bars for bond development and concrete placing.
Table 3 similarly gives the same information for beams designed under the provisions of the AASHTO bridge specifications. These tables are provided for the use of the Engineer, the Detailer is not in a position to determine whether bars should be permitted to be placed in more than a single layer. Stirrups can also be fabricated from welded wire fabric. There are various permissible methods of anchorage, but the most common is to use one of the standard stirrup-tie types as shown in Fig.
Where stirrup support bars are required, they must be specified by the Engineer. In designing the anchorage, allowance must be made to insure that the ends of the stirrup hook are fully encased in concrete, as when hooks turn outward into shallow slabs. Where the design requires closed stirrup-ties for vertical shear, the closure may consist of overlapped standard deg end hooks of one- or two-piece stirrups, or properly spliced pairs of U-stirrups.
At least one longitudinal bar must be located inside each corner of the stirrups or ties, the size of this bar to be equal to at least the meter of the stirrup 4 minimum. Ties provided to resist radial forces resulting from bar or tendon curvature must be adequately anchored. Table 4 shows the maximum number of bars for round columns, and Table 5 indicates the maximum number of bars that can be placed in one face of a rec- tangular column, Splice arrangements must be shown, For butt-spliced systems, an allowance must be included for increase in diameter at mechanical connections, and for access to weld.
Special end preparation required for bars must be shown or specified. Where the steel area required above is different from that in the column below, the engineering drawings must clearly show the extension required if any of all reinforcing bars above and below the floor level see also Section 2. The slope of the inclined portion should not exceed 1 in 6. Where column verticals are offset bent, additional are required and should be placed not more than 6 in, from the point of the bend.
For practical purposes, three closely spaced ties are usually used, one of which may be part of the regularly spaced ties plus two extra ties. Gen- eral arrangements of vertical bars and all tie require- ments should be established by the engineering drawings. In addition to showing size and regular spacing of columa ties, the Engineer must also show any additional ties required for special conditions such as splices, offset-bends, ete.
Reinforcement at least equal in area to that in the column above should be extended to lap bars above by the required lap length or butt splices should be pro- vided. Vertical bars from the column below terminated for any reason are cut off within 3 in. The Engineer must determine what, if any, additional extension of discontinued column verticals Dokumen Serupa dengan ACI
JoJogore Calcium chloride or an admixture containing calcium chloride shall not be used. Where slabs are thus analyzed separate- ly, it may be assumed in determining the bending at a given sup- port that the slab is fixed at any support two panels distant there- from provided the slab continues beyond that point. Rate and method of placing concrete 2. At least 50 percent of the required negative reinforce- ment afi the column strip shall cross the drop panel, if any.
ACI 318-92 PDF
Fenrikus No construction load shall be supported upon, nor any shoring removed from any part of the structure under construction until that portion of the structure has attained sufficient strength to support safely its weight and the loads placed thereon. The structure may be considered divided into a number of bents, each consisting of a row of columns or supports and strips of supported slabs, each strip bounded laterally by the center line of the panel on either side of the center line of columns or supports. Such reinforcement shall provide at least the following ratios of Generated for Mohamed Aly Abdel-razik Moustafa University of California, Berkeley on Additional tests may be made at earlier ages to obtain ad- vance information on the adequacy of strength development where age-strength relationships have been established for the materials and proportions used. For sym- metrically reinforced members, the plastic centroid will correspond to the centroid of the cross section. The test load shall not be applied until the structural members to be tested have borne the full service dead load for at least 48 hr.