CCNA R&S 200-120 PDF

This feature is one of the STP enhancements that Cisco created. This feature enhances switched network reliability, manageability, and security. Prerequisites There are no specific requirements for this document. Components Used This document is not restricted to specific software and hardware versions.

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The problem with using a single, physical path for production and management traffic is that business-related application traffic is forced to compete for the same resources as the traffic that administers, monitors, and supports the network. Management traffic makes up a significant portion of traffic, rising as network devices and servers alert management systems to issues in the network.

In fact, management traffic can significantly impact application traffic, using approximately percent of available bandwidth during normal operating conditions depending on the amount of monitoring configured for the network. When problems are present within the network, management traffic and production traffic can increase to a level that significantly degrades or interrupts management and application traffic. Connecting to and repairing a problem on an offending device requires the administrator to use this same, degraded network to attempt to fix the problem.

They are usually standard in many organizations. White Paper Management NetworksLiving Outside of Production While dynamic routing protocols are required in larger networks, they can cause significant problems when errors occur. The downside of their implementation is that a single route can begin to oscillate, or flap between two available network paths. This is typically caused when a routing update or router heartbeat signal fails to reach a router.

During a route flap, routers inform each other of the loss of a route, and then a new route is calculated and implemented. Production traffic is often interrupted during this time, yet packets continue to enter routers from upstream networks. The routers buffer traffic for as long as possible, but packet loss is almost inevitable as buffers are exhausted. When route opens back up, the buffered packets are sent through the new link. However, packet loss causes the receiving node to request that packets be re-sent.

After a dropped packet, all packets within one window may have to be re-sent to the receiving node; this means that after the packet is dropped, all packets within that window only to clog the network. They will never be used. It may be the case that the route flap continues, exacerbating and perpetuating the problem The combination of the route flap, the traffic spike that results as router buffers are emptied, and the traffic that must be re-sent due to packet loss can congest the network and prevent management traffic from reaching its destination.

By using a management network, administrators are able to immediately access and rectify the issues. Even with tight budgets and other economic pressures, network managers must use production networks to their fullest. However, even a busy network with no problems can still become congested by increasing production traffic to the point where it can no longer be effectively managed. Performance and Monitoring Segregating production and non-production networks eliminates the contention between them, especially if a production link or device becomes congested or experiences a route flap.

First, it ensures that the traffic monitored on production links is primarily application traffic. Second, it makes certain that traffic and application monitoring can continue even when links or devices approach their limits. Knowing the state of your network is extremely useful for capacity planning. Ifyou consistently experience traffic spikes at certain times of the day, you may be able to reschedule tasks such as backups or de-prioritize traffic such as email to ensure that business-critical traffic has sustained and adequate bandwidth.

Seeing a trend of increasing network traffic can help you understand when 5 Management NetworksLiving Outside of Production to raise bandwidth capacity or add other capabilities such as acceleration to your network. The trend would show only the production traffic, since the management and support would use the management network.

These actions can help save money and make you look like a hero to upper management. Monitoring should always be part of your network and application planning. Monitoring helps you understand the who, what, where, and when of your production traffic.

If the production network is hampered by too much management traffic, monitoring results will be skewed and you may find it far more difficult to determine where an issue lies when it is time to troubleshoot. Monitoring and alerting traffic should be as free as possible from any production network. If a production link or device between a server and the network management system fails and another device sends an alert through the production network, how can it possibly be received by the network monitoring system?

However, the alert is much more likely to be received if it is passed through a separate network. Although most devices offer a management port that can easily be connected to an out-of-band network, others may not have an extra management port or may be designed for monitoring only out of a production port.

In this case, the device can be routed to a separate subnet or VLAN, minimizing the effects on the production network and enabling most management traffic to flow via the management network.

One exception to the above is that passive monitoring needs to follow the same physical path as production. The passive nature of the information becomes a measurement of how the actual production traffic is performing.

The second exception is the connectivity done between two devices that must connect via their primary production interface. By using an administration, management, or support network, administrators are often required to login before accessing the network.

This provides two critical pieces of security. First, it keeps passwords from travelling on the same network as production traffic, making it harder for people to troll production networks in search of passwords and other information. Second, it can provide a single point architecturally to provide the detailed access registry of who has accessed the network and for what purpose. White Paper Management NetworksLiving Outside of Production In addition, log information can be routed and stored off the systems before anyone can hack into them and remove traces of the nefarious deeds.

In other words with the remote logging capabilities, the logs can be stored locally and remotely. By storing them remotely, it would prevent erasing or modifying the remote logs. Nevertheless, this traffic should not be passed alongside the production traffic. Addressing this issue is a relatively simple task. By analyzing all network traffic, you can determine what traffic is production.

Anything other than production traffic should be evaluated for transport on a separate, management network. Deploying and using management networks correctly, can increase the performance and security of production networks.

F5 Networks, Inc.

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The problem with using a single, physical path for production and management traffic is that business-related application traffic is forced to compete for the same resources as the traffic that administers, monitors, and supports the network. Management traffic makes up a significant portion of traffic, rising as network devices and servers alert management systems to issues in the network. In fact, management traffic can significantly impact application traffic, using approximately percent of available bandwidth during normal operating conditions depending on the amount of monitoring configured for the network. When problems are present within the network, management traffic and production traffic can increase to a level that significantly degrades or interrupts management and application traffic.

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Which statements correctly identify the role of intermediary devices in the network? Choose three. Select the statements that are correct concerning network protocols. What are two functions of encapsulation?

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